Added: Aug 06, 2021
Last edited: Aug 24, 2021
The EU Waste Framework Directive (WFD) define the basics principles related to waste management for Member States of the European Union. The EU WFD sets a waste hierarchy which starts with prevention and it ends with disposal. It was amended in 2018 and alongside others amendment it was legislated that Member States should promote re-use activity and repair networks, facilitating proper waste management and that by 1st January 2025 Member States shall set up separate collection for textiles (WFD, Article 12b DIRECTIVE (EU) 2018/851).
In order to comply with the WFD and move to a European Circular Economy, the EU has set a hierarchical framework and a series of principles for waste management, reuse and recycling of municipal waste for Member States. The WFD sets also 'end-of-waste' criteria which state when waste can be considered a product or a secondary raw material. According to the WFD some type of waste can be considered a product or a secondary raw material when they have undergone a recovery process, which can include recycling. The aim to create a set of end-of-waste criteria is to increase environmental and financial benefit through encouraging recycling and recovery practices within the EU.
The targets sets by the WFD for municipal waste are:
- by 2025 preparing for an increase a minimum of 55% by weight of recycling and reuse of municipal waste
- by 2030 preparing for an increase a minimum of 60% by weight of recycling and reuse of municipal waste
- by 2035 preparing for an increase a minimum of 65% by weight of recycling and reuse of municipal waste
A certain type of waste can be considered a product or a secondary raw material according to the end-of-waste criteria, when:
- the substance or object is commonly used for specific purposes
- there is an existing market or demand for the substance or object
- the use is lawful
- the use will not lead to overall adverse environmental or human health impacts
The EU has set a series of priority streams that would follow the end-of-waste criteria which are iron, steel, aluminium scraps, glass cullet and copper scrap.
EU Member States are required to provide implementation reports, the next one is due in 2022 and to prepare waste management plans.
Closed loop collection
Closed loop upcycling
Using closed loop recycled materials
Open loop collection
waste management law